1st Alabama Cavalry (Union Army), Battle Action

[Hill Country volunteers loyal to the Union, coming largely from North Alabama]

Unit organized October, 1862; Special Orders No. 106, issued by Major-General Don Carlos Buell, Army of the Ohio, from Huntsville Ala., organized under direction of Capt. H.C. Bankhead of the Fifth U.S. Infantry. Standard issue is Springfield or Enfield rifles, upon formatin in November & December, 1862. By January, 1863 there are two companies (180 men each) of the 1st Alabama Cavalry assigned to Army of Tennessee, General Ulysses S. Grant, commanding. The companies (together with seven regiments of the 64th Illinois Cavalry make up the Third Brigade, Sixteenth Army Corps, District of Corinth. [A number of 1st Ala Cav troopers enlisted & served & died well before the unit's official date; particularly at Battles of Corinth and Iuka in October, November, 1862.]

Some companies of the 1st Ala Cav were assigned to the 1st Middle TN Cav.

December 12, 1862

	Cherokee Station, Ala; skirmish; no report of casualties
		Coordinated skirmish at Little Bear Creek, same day, Illinois 52nd Inf.
			            		         Indiana 66th Inf.	
						         Iowa 2nd & 7th Inf.	
							(one killed, two missing)

December 31-Jan 3, 1863: Murfreesboro: Detached troops participated.

January 20, 1863	

	Chewalla, TN; skirmish; part of reconnoissance to Harpeth River &
        Cumberland River

February 22, 1863

	Tuscumbia, AL; action; no report of causalties; supported by Kansas 7th Cav
								Ohio 5th Cav

		Coordinated skirmish, same day at Glendale, AL by Missouri
                10th Cav 

March 3, 1863	

	Bear Creek, AL; not reported as significant action.

April 4, 1863

	Carroll County, AL (Cos H & L); not reported as significant

April 14, 1863

	Glendale, AL; not reported as significant action.

		Shown same date in skirmish at Burnsville, MS; supported by
                                        -Illinois 15th Cav & 9th mounted Inf. 
					Missouri 10th Cav 

Burnsville is location of Union Camp Davies, sited between Iuka & Corinth,
MS; Camp Glendale is nearby, an outpost to Corinth, which serves as

[Engaged in Brig.-General Dodge's Expedition to North Alabama; Apr 15-May 8]

April 16 & 17, 1863

	Barton's Station, AL; skirmishes, supported by Missouri 10th

April 17, 1863

	Dickson, AL; skirmish, supported by Illinois 15th Cav & 
							9th Mounted Inf.
                                                        Missouri 10th Cav &
                                                        Batt'y I, 1st Light Artil.

	Also in skirmishes at Great Bear Creek, Cherokee Station & Lundy's Lane, AL
				supported by Illinois Battery H, 1st Light Artil.
					         Illinois 7th &9th Mounted Inf.
					         Illinois  50th and 57th  Inf. 
					         Iowa 39th Inf.
					         Ohio 81st Inf.

	Brig.-General Dodge praised the 1st Alabama Cav for bravely charging
        Col Roddy's Confederates at Bear Creek with unloaded muskets,
        retaking artillery and caissons; noted as creditable, especially as
        they were all new recruits and poorly drilled.  (Union losses 4
        killed; 19 wounded; 59 missing)

April 19, 1863

	Joined 50th Illinois, "in ambush near Buzzard's Roost Creek".

April 22, 1863

	Rock Cut near Tuscumbia, AL; action, supported by units from skirmishes of Apr
         				17th, plus Illinois 12th and 122nd Inf.	
					    Indiana 66th Inf.	
					    Michigan, Batt'y C, 1st Light Artil.
					     Kansas 7th Cav
					     Ohio 27th, 39th, 43rd & 63rd Inf.
April 23, 1863

	Tuscumbia, AL; action, supported by above units from Illinois,
        Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas and Missouri.

	Coordinated skirmishes of same date in Florence and Leighton.

[April 26th - May 3rd; Col. Streight's Cavalry Raid from Tuscumbia toward
Rome GA; for the purpose of "destroying the railroads in that country".]

April 27, 1863

	Town Creek & Day's Gap, AL; action supported by Tennessee, 1st
                                                    Middle Cav. units
                                                    from Illinois, Indiana,
                                                    Ohio, Michigan, Kansas
                                                    and Missouri.

[1st Ala Cav (main force) withdrew from Streight's Raid at Town Creek or
Courtland, for mission under Brig.-General Dodge, of "scouring the
countryside for all the horses & mules that can be found" in direction of
Tupelo, MS; some 1st Ala Cav continued with the fateful Raid attempt by Col.
Streight, which resulted in disaster with surrender of over 1400 men to
Confed. Gen Nathan B. Forrest's force of only 500 near the Ga border; in
contrast the scouring mission got 900 horses & mules, sheep & hogs by the
thousands, destroyed 60 flatboats, broke-up ferrys, etc., leaving "nothing
in the valley which would in the least aid the enemy"]

Arrived in Corinth (Glendale), about 4 pm on Saturday, May 2nd.

[May 2-May 8; Expedition from Burnsville, MS to Tupelo, MS]

May 5, 1863
	King's Creek & Blacklands near Tupelo MS; action; supported by
						Illinois 15th Cav & 9th Mtd. Inf.
						Missouri 10th Cav
						Kansas 7th Cav
						Union losses 1 killed, 5 wounded, 3 missing

[Contemporary event:  Seige of Vicksburg MS, May 18-July 4th, 1863]

June 11, 1863

	Burnsville, MS; skirmish

August 3, 1863

	Ripley, MS; skirmish

September, 1863

	Company K which had been on duty with the First Middle Tennessee is
        returned to the 1st Ala Cav.; Col Spences takes command of the
        Regiment on Sept 11, 1863.

Mid-October, 1863

	Preparing move-out to accomplish order to proceed "through Jasper,
	Ala to Montgomery or some point east...on the West Point RR...there to
	destroy its rolling stock, track & depots, doing the most through amount of
	damage possible". 

[October 20-29, Operations on Memphis & Charleston RR in Alabama, part of
the action for re-opening the Tennessee River] 

	Force of 650 men moved out of Corinth, directly southeastward,
        towards Columbiana, Ala - its first responsibililty to destroy the
        railroad from Line Station to Elyton (now Birmingham), a new line
        being built "for the sole purpose of getting out the railroad iron
        now being manufactured at these mills".

October 21, 1863

	Forty miles out of Glendale, attacked at Jones Crossroads by 2000
        confederates; unit scattered; 20 killed including two captains, the
        adjutant and a lieutenant.  The destruction of the Line Station to
        Elyton RR was apparently postponed.

October 26, 1863

	Vincent's Cross Roads and Bay Springs Ala

October 28 & 29, 1863

	Wauhatchie TN; engagement; Union losses are 78 killed, 327 wounded,
	15 missing 

[November 3-5th, More Operations on Memphis & Charleston RR in Tennessee & MS]

November 3, 1863

	Colliersville, TN; supported by Illinois 6th, 7th & 9th Cav; Batt'y
        K Light Artil. & Iowa 2nd Cav.; Union losses 7 killed, 57 wounded

November 4, 1863  

	Moscow, TN; supported by same troops as at Colliersville TN

November 22, 1863

	Camp Davies, MS (detachment); skirmish

November 26, 1863

	200 men of the 1st Ala Cav left at dawn as part of 900 man force
under Col. Mizner, out of Corinth, marched 31 miles and encamped at
Blackland.  Then rode cautiously southward to Chesterville, where in order
to avoid Lee's Cavalry, it "moved to a position near Molino and thence to
Ripley MS".  The horses of the 1st Ala Cav were so poor that the 1st Ala Cav
were ordered back to Corinth, escorting 35 prisoners who had been picked up
along the way. 

[Nov 28-Dec 10th, Operations on Memphis & Charleston RR, against Lee's Attack]

November 28, 1863

	Molino, MS; supported by Kansas 7th Cav & Michigan 3rd Cav.
December 4, 1863

	Wolf River Bridge, MS   

[Expedition toward Tuscumbia, Alabama; December 9-24th]

December 24, 1863

	Jack's Creek, MS or AL
	Spent end of year recuperating & recruiting

January 9, 1864

	General Dodge writes Sec. of War, Edwin M. Stanton requesting
	"authority to raise one or more regiments of cavalry from Alabamians"; he
	claimed to have personally recruited about 1000 men, saying "there are large
	numbers of Alabamians coming into our lines with a better quality than has
	ever come through before..." 

	[Expedition from Memphis to Wyatt's, MS; Feb 6-18, 1864 (Detachment)]

February 6, 1864
	From Scottsboro, Ala, Major General John A. Logan writes of the 1st Ala Cav,

	"...they are the best scouts I ever saw and know the country well clear to

	A patrol of a detached unit serving in NE Alabama, encountered
        resistance and were driven back from Caperton's Ferry to Island
        Creek, then retreated to camp at Bridgeport, Ala.

  February 8, 1864

	Coldwater Ferry, MS; supported by Illinois Batt'y E, 114th Inf.;
                                                Indiana 93rd Inf, Ohio
                                                72nd and 95th Inf.

February 8 & 9, 1864

	Senatobia, MS; supported by same units as at Coldwater Ferry. 
February 13, 1864

	Wyatt's, MS; supported by same units as at Coldwater Ferry &

 [Operations against Confederate Gen. Nathan B. Forrest in West Tennessee
& Kentucky; from February 16-April 14, 1864; attached to Memphis command]
		Periodic reconnaisance missions to Decatur, LaGrange,
                Corinth, Hernando, Coldwater, Germantown, Mount Pleasant or
                other points.  Two detached units of the 1st Ala Cav
                were assigned to NE Alabama.

		Bolivar TN; skirmish, Union losses 73 killed/wounded/&missing. 
		Massacre at Fort Pillow TN, Union losses 574
                killed/wounded/& missing including the Alabama 1st Colored &
                others. On March 24th, the 1st Ala Cav , "one-half of the
                unit dismounted" were ordered to travel from Memphis to
                Decatur; a 600 mile trip was undertaken on the steamer
                Westmorland - northward up the Mississippi River to Cairo
                Ill., then eastward up the Ohio to Paducah, then up the
                Cumberland River to Nashville and finally marched overland
                to Mooresville, Al, near Decatur, arriving on April 14th.

[Reconnoisance down Tennessee River to Triana, (AL) April 12-16, 1864(Detachment)]

April 17,18 & 19, 1864

	Decatur, AL; skirmishes & operations in Morgan County; supported by
                                                                Illinois 9th

	Brig. General Morgan L. Smith writes, "The loyal Alabamians are
        invaluable and exceed in number and are equal in zeal to anything we
        discovered in Tennessee".

[Atlanta campaign - May to September, 1864]

May 1-4, 1864

	In company with the 9th Illinois, traveled to Huntsville, then east
        to Stevenson; eventually joining other units for the push through
        Georgia.  The 1st Ala Cav rode the flanks of the 9th Illinois.

[Movements on Dalton, May 5-9, 1864]

May 10-12, 1864

	Snake Creek Gap, GA; main engagement by Ill., Iowa & Ohio

May 13-15, 1864

	Battle of Resaca, GA; Union lossed 600 killed, 2147 wounded, 253

May 16, 1864

	Rome &/or Parker's Cross-Roads, GA;  supported by Illinois 9th
        mounted Inf. and various other troops.

 May 25-June 5, 1864

	Battles about Dallas,  New Hope Church & Allatoona Hills, GA; large
        Battle Group; Union losses, 625 killed, 3633 wounded, 442

June 10-July 2, 1864

	Battles about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain, GA; very large
        Battle Group; Union losses,1068 killed, 3484 wounded, 1558

July 2-5, 1864

	Nicajack Creek, GA; large Battle Group; Union losses, 450

July 6-17, 1864

	Chatahoochee River, GA; large Infantry forces (pre-lude to Battle of
	Peachtree Creek of July 19-20; Union losses at Peachtree were 2200
	killed/wounded/missing.  July 8, 1864

	Cove Springs, GA; skirmish

July 11-13, 1864

	Expedition to Centre, AL; Col. Spencer in command; retraced its route through Rome, Gadsden & Guntersville, rear-guarding RR supply lines and scouting against the enemy.  

July 19-22, 1864

	Decatur, AL

	Battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864; Union losses of 9719 (k/w/m); then Siege
	of Atlanta, July 22-Aug 25th; ended with flanking movement to Jonesboro,

July 28 & 29, 1864

	Scout to Cedar Bluff, AL; escorted Illinois 57th Infantry.

August 11-15, 1864

	Expedition from Rome GA via Cedartown, Cave Spring, Blue Mountain
	(now Anniston) to Jacksonville AL, with forays as far south as Tallapoosa Co
	Ala where it destroyed cotton and wheat and burned a steam cotton

August 15, 1864

	Buchanan, GA; skirmish

August 20, 1864

	Coreysville, GA; skirmish

August 25-30, 1864

	Flank movement on Jonesboro, GA

August 31-Sept 1, 1864

	Battle of Jonesboro, GA; Union loss 1149 k/w/m

	Brig-General John M. Corse wrote "I am largely indebted to the activity and
	gallantry of the 1st Ala Cav in procuring information for me about General	
	John B. Hood's movements in NE Georgia and NW Alabama since arriving here";
	General Sherman likewise acknowledged his debt to the scouting activities of
	the 1st Ala Cav during the Campaign for Atlanta. 

September 3, 1864

	Bolensville & Rollinsville, GA; skirmishing

September 6, 1864

	Rome, GA; skirmish

October 4, 1864

	Regiment ordered to move to Kingston, 20 miles SE of Rome with three
        days rations.

October 12-13, 1864

	Reconnoissance from Rome Ga on Cave Springs Road toward Cedar Town
        for confederates of 1st Ala CSA who were at Etowah.

October 30, 1864

	Moved from Rome via Cedar Town to Marietta, arriving November 5th. 
        Remained at Marietta for eight days then circled Atlanta to
        Milledgeville destroying its RR and depot.  Acused by field office
        of "outrages...of aggravated nature...unless ceases at once, every
        officer will be arrested..." However, the 1st Ala Cav acted upon the
        personal orders of Gen. Sherman to "burn the country within fifteen
        miles" and Brig-General Dodge winced because he knew it also meant
        "...things beside burning could be done".

November 15 - December 10, 1864

	March to the Sea Campaign of General William Tecumseh Sherman

November 24 & 25, 1864

	Ball's Ferry & Ga. Central RR Bridge, Oconee River, (south of Athens

November 27-29, 1864

	Waynesboro, Burke Co GA

December 1, 1864

	Moved out from Millen GA down the GA Central RR, having a brisk
        skirmish at Bush Head Creek and had continuing slight skirmishes
        until the 9th.  Encountered enemy's outer works at Savannah and
        drove in two miles over a road with torpedoes buried which exploded
        killing Adjutant Tupper and wounding six men slightly.

December 4, 1864

	Briar Creek & Station #5 of GA Central RR, GA & Little Ogeechee
	River, GA 

December 10-21; Seige of Savannah

December 18, 1864

	Encamped at Midway Congregational Church in Liberty Co.GA; engaged
        in tearing up 18 mile stretch of RR including trestles and

	Siege of Savannah, GA; Union losses 200 killed & wounded.

General Sherman paraded his victorious troops through the streets of
        Savannah as the year came to a close; the 1st Ala Cav formed up on
        Price Street, with its right resting on Bay Street. 

	Encamped at Fort Thunderbolt, four miles south of the city.

[Campaign of the Carolinas; January to April, 1865]

     [Concurrent event, Jan 4, 1865, skirmish at Thorn Hill, Marion Co Ala;
     Union losses, 1 killed and 2 wounded; dead believed to be John Johnson,
     Co I, 12th TN Cav, buried at New Hope Bap. Church near Thorn Hill on
     old Columbus Road]

January 28, 1865

	Departed Fort Thunderbolt with 18 officers and 292 men as a unit of
        the Third Brigade of the Third Cavalry Division.

February 7, 1865

	River's Bridge, SC; driving one of "Fighting Joe Wheeler's brigades
        ahead of its advance.

February 8, 1865

	Williston, & near White Post, SC; skirmish, supported by Kentucky
        5th Cav, Illinois 9th Mounted Inf., Ohio 5th Cav & others.
        Union losses 25 k/w/m.  (the 1st Ala Cav lost four wounded,
        one of which later died). Six regiments of Allen's
        division of Wheeler's cavalry were totally routed ! Col.
        Spencer given credit for great victory with five battle
        flags captured.

Page 9
February 11, 1865

	Aiken & Johnson's Station, SC; crossing Edisto, Saluda, Broad,
        Wateree & PeeDee Rivers, via Lexington, Alston, Black Storks,
        Lancaster & Sneedsborough.

February 14, 1865

	Gunter's Bridge on North Edisto River, SC

March 7, 1865

	Rockingham, NC;

March 10, 1865

	Monroe's Cross-Roads near Cheraw SC; engagement; Union losses 19
        killed, 70 wounded, 105 missing.  An ambush was personally launched
        by Generals Wheeler and Wade Hampton, resulting in three hours of
        bloody hand-to-hand combat.  Both Majors Cramer and Tramel of the
        1st Ala Cav were captured with Tramel soon escaping (six other
        officers were also lost to the 1st Ala Cav), but spending three days
        and nights lying in the swamps.  A Lt. Stetson was able to control
        the artillery and drive away three successive charges by the
        confederates, inflicting heavy losses on them.  A force of three
        small regiments defeated a force of 5000 rebels.  Confederate dead
        were 103 and a large number of wounded.

March 16, 1865

	Battle of Averysboro & Taylor's Hole Creek, NC; large engagement;
        Union losses were 95 killed, 533 wounded, 54 missing

March 19-21, 1865

	Battle of Bentonville, NC; large engagement; the 1st Ala Cav guarded
        the flanks; Union losses 194 killed, 1112 wounded, 221 missing.

March 22, 1865

	Mount Olive, NC; Major General Kilpatrick is jubilant after visiting
        with Gen Sherman and in a special circular to the men of the Third
        Cavalry (which includes the 1st Ala Cav) says " Soldiers, be proud ! 
        Of all the brave men of this army you have a right to be.  You have
        won the admiration of our infantry, fighting on foot and mounted,
        and you will receive the outspoken words of praise from the great
        Sherman himself. ... General Sherman is satisfied with his

March 30-31, 1865

	Faisson's Depot, NC; rested after marching more than 700 miles and
        shared in the destruction of 80 RR bridges, 200,000 bales of cotton,
        411 gins, 170 saw-mills and 70 grist mills to say nothing of rolling
        stock, water tanks, wagon shops & other.

	The following men were lost during the Campaign of the Carolinas:
		Company A, Lt. George W. Emerick
		Company C, Capt. John Latty
		Company K, 1st Lt. Joseph H. Hornback & four enlisted men
		Company M, Maj. Cramer & 2nd Lt. George C. Jenkins + 28 wounded
		Company E, Surgeon J.G.C. Swaving, 1st Lt John P. Moore + 46 captured

April 1, 1865
	Roachland, NC 

April 11, 1865
	Mt. Pleasant, NC

April 13, 1865
	Occupation of Raleigh, NC

April 26, 1865

	Surrender at Bennett's House, Durham Station, NC; Johnson and his
        army to General William Tecumseh Sherman.

May, 1865
	Hillsboro NC, awaiting orders
	Surrender of Johnson and his
        Army, Ordered to Dept. of the Cumberland

May to October 20, 1865

	Return to Alabama via Hillsboro, Greensboro, Salisbury (where it
        remained for a week to shoe horses), Lincolnton, Rutherford,
        Asheville, Bulls Gap, Knoxville (arriving on the last day of May) a
        journey of 400 miles; then on June 2nd left Knoxville, traveling to
        Huntsville via Bridgeport, Stevenson, and Larkinsville (arriving in
        Huntsville on June 14th, reporting to Major-General Robert S. 

July 5, 1865

	Companies B, C, E, F, G, & M were bivouacked in Huntsville; Cos. H &
	K were at Moulton.   

July 19, 1865

	A sizeable number of  troopers were released from service in
        Nashville TN on this date.

August 5, 1865
	Companies C, E, F, G & K were bivouacked in Courtland; Co
        H is in Blountsville; Co M is in Pikeville, Marion Co.; Co B not

	Duty in District of Northern Alabama and at Huntsville, Ala.
        Mustered Out, October 20, 1865.

Submitted by: Joel Mize